Firstly, We will look over the term ‘FOETICIDE’ which generally means to abort the developed fetus inside mother’s womb outside the legal methods. Therefore, we can relate this meaning with female foeticide. In that case, sex of fetus will be examined by doctor and then by the allowance of parents of that fetus, it get turned into an aborted fetus. This issue basically occurs in the backward areas of nation.
This problem occurs mostly in India, Pakistan, some of the cases can be seen in China, but in India, which is facing an increasing number of itself. As cases of female foeticide, are increasing day by day in India. These kinds of cases are more in north-western areas such as Jammu & Kashmir, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan.
The normal sex ratio is considered as between 103 and 107, if in case this ratio has increased, then it is considered as female foeticide. This is such a major social issue in India and it is connected to the dowry system in some ways. As rural people have the ideology, that if there is a female child in family, then they have to give, dowry too in her wedding. These kinds of ideologies and thoughts results to such a criminal issues like female foeticide. As there is a shlok of Sanskrit in Indian ethics and values-
‘यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः‘
Which basically means where there females are considered as goddess and where people respects female, there is residency of god. So, we should respect females and serves humanity to them by considering them as goddess. Despite, this female foeticide is being banned by the Government of India in 1961, even then some people don’t try to understand as they do this female foeticide outside of the legal methods. As in India, people give more preference to sons over daughter, this thing is existing between the Indian society since many years. People try to know sex of fetus inside mother’s womb by PRE-NATAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, after which if sex of child found out to female rather than male. Then, it will get aborted. This process has taken a great growth after 1990s, when ultrasound techniques has gained frequent growth through medical science. There was different tendency of females to give birth to children until they cannot give a baby boy to the family. Its main reason can be as our Indian, because of large culture which exists in India against women. This can be proved by educational ratio as there are much literacy rate of male than females in India, as well as participation in Economic ways too.
- The main rooted causes of female foeticide, is The dowry system In India. A number of aborted female fetus, can be killed due to the fear of their dowry when they will be young. Those poor class families think that, they can’t afford much for dowry, that’s why they choose to abort if the fetus is female.
- As, according to Hindu’s mythology, giving birth to a child is considered as PATH TO HEAVEN, because many parents think that, spending money on their female child is totally a waste, as their daughter will go in the house of her IN-LAWS, and their money will be wasted.
- We can say the other cause of female foeticide, advancement of technology, more options to abort the child, more will be abortions.
There are some laws which has been enshrined in The constitution of India to ban this crime, ‘FEMALE FOETICIDE’ –
- THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, 1950 – Section 312 of IPC (INDIAN PENAL CODE), 1860 with the Medical termination of pregnancy Act, 1971 where all the restrictions imposed therein, including the time limit of 20 weeks. Right to abortion is a specie of Right to privacy.
- THE INDIAN PENAL CODE, 1860
- SECTION 312, Causing miscarriage.
- SECTION 313, Causing miscarriage without women’s consent.
- SECTION 314, Death caused by the act done with intent to cause miscarriage.
- SECTION 315, Act done with intent to prevent child being born alive or to cause to die after birth.
Government of India, has taken an action plan and try to build a policy framework.
BALIKA SAMRDDHI YOJANA
- To bring a positive impact regarding female child, in her family and community.
- To increase marriage age of girls.
- To give more facilities to girl child.